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HomeWikipedia List > Wikipedia

Wikipedia

Buckinghamshire

Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is a region in the southeast of England, and is also known as the County of Buckinghamshire or Buckinghamshire County.

The county town is Aylesbury. 

Buckinghamshire is divided into four districts: Aylesbury Vale, Chiltern, South Bucks and Wycombe.

The ceremonial county includes Milton Keynes.

The ceremonial county borders Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, Berkshire, and Greater London.

Under the local government reforms in 1974, Buckinghamshire turned Slough and Eton over to Buckshire, and Slough and Windsor and Maidenhead gained greater unitary authority in 1998.

Milton Keynes gained stronger unitary authority in 1997.

Buckinghamshire is a farming county, with Chiltern Hills in the south and Vale of Aylesbury (Aylesbury Vale) in the north.

The highest point is Coombe Hill near Wendover at 876 feet (267 meters) above sea level.

It is a fertile farming area with many landowners; specifically, the Rothschild family in the 19th century.

It is mainly a farming area, but there is also furniture production (traditionally centered in High Wycombe), pharmaceutical, and service industries.

There is a commuter train to London in the south.

Contents

1 History

2 Government

3 Coat of Arms

History

"Buckinghamshire" is Anglo-Saxon for "the district of Bucca's home."

"Bucca's home" refers to Buckingham in the northern part of the county, and is associated with an Anglo-Saxon landowner.

The name of the county name has been in use since the 12th century, but the county itself has existed since the division of the kingdom of Mercia (585–919).

The villages of Buckinghamshire date back to before the Anglo-Saxon period.

Aylesbury, for example, can be dated back to at least 1500 BC.

There are many places that still have their Brythonic names (Penn, Wendover) or that are a compound of Brythonic and Anglo Saxon (Brill, Chetwode, Great Brickhill), and there are pre-Roman earthworks throughout the entire county.

The most famous of the Briton kings, Cunobeline, had a castle in the county (earthworks still remain to this day), and his name was used for the villages known as the Kimbles.

The influence of Rome can most widely be seen in the Roman roads that cross the county.

Watling Street and Akeman Street both cross the county from east to west and extend out to Chiltern Hills.

Both of the two aforementioned roads were important trade routes linking London to the other parts of Roman Britain, but the latter was used as a line of defense, and it's possible that both were expansions of older roads.

However, the Anglo-Saxons were the ones to have the greatest impact on the history of Buckinghamshire.

Not only are the majority of names in Buckinghamshire from the Anglo-Saxons, but the modern regions in the county are the same as they were during the Anglo-Saxon period.

One of the greatest battles in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was the battle between King Cerdic of Wessex and the Britons of Chearsley, and three saints from that time were born in Quarrendon, and a royal palace was built in Brill during the late Anglo-Saxon period.

The actual wealth of Buckinghamshire was recorded when the Domesday Survey took place in 1086.

The House of Plantagenet continuously made use of the wealth of Buckinghamshire.

William the Conqueror took much of the territory for his and his family's personal use.

His half-brother Odo became a major landowner.

All of England's wild swans and many ancient hunts became the property of the king (places of note: Bernwood Forest, Whaddon Chase and Princes Risborough).

The ancient tradition of breeding swans for the king was later used forthe Buckinghamshire coat of arms. (More details later)

Another stream of contributions to the Crown was nearly a third of the county becoming the personal property of King Henry VIII through the Dissolution of the Monasteries.

In order to gain favor so he could marry Thomas Boleyn's daughter Anne, Henry the Eighth had to make Aylesbury higher than Buckingham.

Another of his wives, Catherine Parr, also had influence in Buckinghamshire.

During the Puritan Revolution (1642 - 1649), most of Buckinghamshire was Parliamentarian, but there were some individual pockets of Royalism.

The Parliamentarian hero John Hampden was from Buckinghamshire, and he assisted in the defense of Aylesbury during the fighting in 1642.

Parliamentarian Aylesbury and Royalist Oxford were constantly in conflict over some of the western villages (such as Brill and Boarstall).

Many of these villages had been destroyed by the end of the war, but were rebuilt afterwards.

In 1682, William Penn, whose family lived in Penn, left with Quakers from Buckinghamshire for America, and founded Bucks County in Pennsylvania.

Buckingham, Chalfont, Wycombe, and Solebury in Bucks County in Pennsylvania are associated with areas in Buckinghamshire.

The industrial revolution and construction of railroads completely changed the landscape of Buckinghamshire.

Wolverton in the north (now in Milton Keynes) became a center for the railway carriage construction and furniture industries in the south and paper industries.

In the center of the Buckinghamshire, the paper industry flourished, and grew quickly employing poor women and children.

Buckinghamshire is still now increasing their rail connections to London, Birmingham, and Manchester, and the furniture building remains a major industry in Bucks in the south.

During the early part of the middle of the Victorian era, there was a major outbreak of cholera and a famine, which had an influence on the farming that had for many long years sustained and supported Buckinghamshire.

Migration from the county abroad and to nearby cities peaked at that time, and there were landowners took advantage of the cheaper land put up for sale by the people who had been living there.

As a result, one of the most influential families (the Rothschilds) arrived in Buckingham, and they had a great influence on the landscape of Buckinghamshire.

In the 20th century, there was large-scale urbanization in the north and the south, and the formation of the new towns of Milton Keynes and Slough.

This flowed naturally from industrialization, and birthed needed employment to each area.

From both, autonomy as their right grew stronger, and Buckinghamshire lost around 1/3rd of its area.

Buckinghamshire is considered today by many to be the rural landscape of Edwardian fiction and is ordinarily both called and known as "leafy Bucks."

This point of view has made many areas seem like a common sense choice for commuters to London, which has invited a rise in the cost of living.

However, there are still areas of poverty (especially in large cities such as Aylesbury and High Wycombe.)

Government

Buckinghamshire is currently administered by the Buckinghamshire County Council.

The county council was established on Walton Street, Aylesbury, in 1889 (it is at the same location at present).

There are two levels in Buckinghamshire's administrative organization: the county council and the councils for each district.

In 1960, the council moved to a 15-storey tower block in the center of Aylesbury designed by Thomas Pooley.

Called one of the most hated and unpopular buildings in Buckinghamshire, it was listed as a Grade II building, based on the Town and Country Planning Act 1947.

In 1997, the Milton Keynes District in the north separated from Buckinghamshire, but it is administratively still considered part of Buckinghamshire.

Coat of Arms

The Buckinghamshire coat of arms is a white swan in chains.

That originates from the white swans that were kept for the pleasure of the king during the Anglo-Saxon period.

The swan in chains represents the swan being bound to the king, which is based on an ancient law that is still in place in England today.

It was first used by Humphrey Stafford during the Battle of Agincourt (October 25, 1415, northern France).

Above the swan in the center is a Whitelead Cross and a gold band representing the people connected to ancient history.

Above the shield is a beech tree, which represents the Chiltern Forest that once covered nearly half the county.

There is a buck and a swan on both sides.

The motto on the shield is "Vestigia Nulla Retrorsum," which is Latin for "no stepping back."

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[ Original text ] http://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E3%83%90%E3%83%83%E3%82%AD%E3%83%B3%E3%82%AC%E3%83%A0%E3%82%B7%E3%83%A3%E3%83%BC&oldid=49309112 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
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A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
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